Monday, 16 November 2015

COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION & COMPUTER MANAGED INSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION
                               A recurring dream is shared by members of administrative bodies in all walks of life.They dream that to increase productivity and improve efficiency all one needs is up-to-date technology.So they buy computers,put them on people’s desks,and wait for productivity to somehow magically improve.As all too many have found out, the objective often remains a dream and sometimes becomes a nightmare.
                               Although they are getting smarter and faster,computers are only as efficient and productive as the people using them.So their users must be given the time,ongoing training,and support to use the technology effectively.It widely acknowledged in the computer world that the only absolute rule is “junk in junk out.It is the quality and quantity of the input that makes the computer a productivity tool.In education,the most important input is the education of the teachers who will be using the books.

Computer Assisted Instruction
  User of computer in education is referred by many names such as,
• Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
•Computer Aided Instruction (CAI)
•Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)
•Computer Based Instruction (CBI)
•Computer Enriched Instruction (CEI)
•Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)


NEW TERMINOLOGY
Web Based Training
Wed Based Learning
Web Based Instruction
  Computer Based Education(CBE) and Computer Based Instruction(CBI) are the broadest terms and can refer to virtually any kind of computer use in educational settings.Computer Assisted Instruction(CAI) Computer Aided Instruction(CAI) is a narrower term and most often refers to drill-and-practice,tutorial or simulation activities.Computer Managed Instruction(CMI) is an instructional strategy whereby  the computer is used to provide learning objectives,learning resources,record keeping,progress tracking,and assessment of learner performance.Computer based tools and applications are used to assist the teacher or school administrator in the management of the learner and instructional process.

Computer Assisted Instruction(CAI)
                A self-learning technique,usually offline/online,involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Computer Assisted Instruction(CAI)is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.CAI uses a combination of text,graphics,sound and video in enhancing the learning process.The computer has many purposes in the class room,and it can be utilized to help a student in all areas of the curriculum.CAI refers to the use of the computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction.CAI programs use tutorials,drill and practice,simulation,and problem solving approaches to present topics and they test the students understandings.

Typical CAI Provides
1.Text or multimedia content
2.Multiple-choice questions
3.Problems                                 
4.Immediate feedback
5.Notes on incorrect responses
6.Summarizes students performance
7.Exercises for practice
8.Worksheets and tests.

Types of Computer Assisted Instruction
1.Drill-and-practice
                   Drill and practice provides oppertunities or students to repeatedly practice the skills that have previously been presented and that further practice is necessary for mastery.
2.Tutorial
                    Tutorial activity includes both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work,including drill practice,games and simulation.
3.Games
                Games software often creates a contest to achieve the highest score and either beat others or beat the computer.

4.Simulation
                  Simulation software can provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its risks.
5.Discovery
                      Discovery approach  provides a large database of information specific to a course or content area and challenges the learner to analyze,compare,infer and evaluate based on their explorations of the data.
6.Problem solving
                         This approach helps children develop specific problem solving skills and strategies.

Advantages of Computer Assisted Instruction     
*One to one interaction
*Greater motivator
*Freedom to experiment with different options
*Instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers elicited
*Self pacing allow students to proceed at their own pace
*Helps teacher can devote more time to individual students
*Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learns
*Individual attention
*Learn more and more rapidly
*Multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach
*Self directed learning-students can decide when,where,and what to learn.

Limitations of Computer Assisted Instruction      
*May feel overwhelmed by the information and resources available
*Over use of multimedia may divert the attention from the content
*Learning becomes too mechanical
*Non availability of good CAI packages
*Lack of infrastructure.                                

COMPUTER MANAGED LEARNING
                        Computer Managed Learning(CML) is not tobe confused with Computer Assisted Instruction(CAI) ,Computer Based Instruction(CBI) ,or Computer Based Learning(CBL).It is however,often referred to as Computer Managed Instruction(CMI).When discussing computers and education, if one remembers that learning and instruction generally refer to the same thing,a good deal of the confusion between different terms is often eliminated.
CMI has both abroad and narrow meaning .In the broader sense,CMI refers to the following definition;
CMI in its most sophisticated levels provides the following instructional functions;(1) Assesses the learners present level of knowledge
                    (2)diagnoses weaknesss or graps in the students learning
                     (3)prescribes learning activities to remediate the identified         
                           Weaknesses , and
                       (4)continuously monitors progress of the learner.

               CML can save time, money, and bureaucratic headaches,special educators are likely to continue developing and using micro computer management tools for;
•Storing demographic and educational information on students and their needs
•Recording,monitoring,and reporting students progress
•Listing incomplete information on student records
•Recording contacts with parents and supporting agencies/personnel
•Recording,monitoring and reporting student due process status
•Generating reprts on referrals,meeting,evaluation,placement,programming,and review for each students
•Locating,describing,and recommending appropriate materials based on individual student need
•Generating IEP objectives from a large data base and
•Issuing reminders for when reports are due.








conclusion
                       Effective implementation of educational programs implies effective management or information. Well designed CML systems are,then,tools to assist educators in maintaining pertinent and accurate informationthat will help the educator monitor the educational process.
   CML has shared a developmental history similar to the history of CAL.However the use of computer 19 technology to more efficiently “teach” students has increased the perceived need to more effectively “teach” students,consequently CML in recent years has appeared from behind the shadow of its older brother CAL.
                       However,generic and customised packages along with the machinery that implements these packages must be flexible enough to meet new needs and demands therefore one must maintain a constant attitude toward evaluation of the system to assure that the CML program is meeting the needs of the educator and the learner.
Reference
 •www.ncbi.nih.gov
•onlinelibrary.wiley.com
•www.readingrockets.org

•www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

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